# Direct Material Quantity Variance Formula and Calculation

Reporting the absolute value of the number (without regard to the negative sign) and a “Favorable” label makes this easier for management to read. We can also see that this is a favorable variance just based on the fact that we paid \$5.60 per board food for our materials instead of the \$6 that we used when building our budget. The total price variance during January is \$ 200 (\$ 400 – \$ 300  + \$ 100), and it will impact the cost of goods sold in statement of profit and lose.

• This shows that we saved money by buying cheaper, but lost money because of material waste.
• The company had paid an average price of \$1.5 per kilogram of stuffing material.
• Standard cost is the amount the company expect to pay to get the same quantity of material.
• This is an unfavorable outcome because the actual price for materials was more than the standard price.

Ignore how much you actually paid for raw materials; we’re just trying to quantify the actual vs. expected quantity. To evaluate the price difference, you’re looking for a different accounting formula called the direct material price variance. When a company makes a product and compares the actual materials cost to the standard materials cost, the result is the total direct materials cost variance. When a company makes a product and compares the actual materials cost to the standard materials cost, the result is the total direct materials cost variance. The producer must be aware that the difference between what it expects to happen and what actually happens will affect all of the goods produced using these particular materials. Therefore, the sooner management is aware of a problem, the sooner they can fix it.

Watch this video featuring a professor of accounting walking through the steps involved in calculating a material price variance and a material quantity variance to learn more. In a multi-product company, the total quantity variance is divided over each of the products manufactured. This will result in a product usage variance for each unit produced. The marginal cost is the cost involved in producing an additional unit of output. With increase in output produced, the total cost will also increase.

The difference between this actual expenditure and the actual expenditure on direct material is the direct materials price variance. The total direct materials cost variance is also found by combining the direct materials price variance and the direct materials quantity variance. By showing the total materials variance as the sum of the two components, management can better analyze the two variances and enhance decision-making. The standard price of materials purchased by Angro is \$2.00 per kg and standard quantity of materials allowed to produce a unit of product is 1.5kg. During December 2020, 5,000 units were produced using 8,000kgs of direct materials. Calculate direct materials quantity variance and also indicate whether it is favorable or unfavorable.

## Causes of unfavorable direct materials quantity variance

With either of these formulas, the actual quantity purchased refers to the actual amount of materials bought during the period. The standard price is the expected price paid for materials per unit. The actual price paid is the actual amount paid for materials per unit. If there is no difference between the standard price and the actual price paid, the outcome will be zero, and no price variance exists. The purchase price variance is the difference between the standard and actual cost per unit of the direct materials purchased, multiplied by the standard number of units expected to be used in the production process. The difference column shows that 200 fewer pounds were used than expected (favorable).

Clearly, this is favorable because the actual quantity
used was lower than the expected (budgeted) quantity. A materials quantity variance compares the actual how to calculate accounts payable on balance sheets and expected direct material used in manufacturing a product. You have an unfavorable materials quantity variance when you use more material than expected.

To apply this method to the Band Book example, take a look at the next diagram. Direct materials actually cost \$297,000, even though the standard cost of the direct materials is only \$289,800. The actual quantity of direct materials at standard price equals \$310,500. Else labor variance does not use direct material price, therefore option C) and option D) are invalid further direct material quantity variance uses standard rate and no actual rate is used. As an example of the quantity variance, ABC International uses 5,000 pounds of steel during a month of production, when the bill of materials for the items produced indicate that only 4,200 pounds should have been used. Since the standard price of steel is \$20 per pound, ABC can value this variance at \$16,000.

## Determine the actual material quantity

There are two components to a direct materials variance, the direct materials price variance and the direct materials quantity variance, which both compare the actual price or amount used to the standard amount. There are two components to a direct materials variance, the direct materials price variance and the direct materials quantity variance, which both compare the actual price or amount used to the standard amount. Because the company uses 30,000 pounds of paper rather than the 28,000-pound standard, it loses an additional \$20,700.

## Direct materials quantity variance

A material quantity variance points to a lack of efficiency during the manufacturing process. If it’s not because of defective materials, look into how your factory workers are trained. Factory workers who receive insufficient training won’t work at maximum efficiency, wasting more material than is necessary for production.

## What is the definition of a direct materials price variance?

The material price variance is adverse because the actual price is higher than the standard. The standard price of \$100 per bag was allowed in the budget, but the purchase manager was able to source the materials from a cheaper supplier at the cost of \$80 per bag. Before we take a look at the direct materials efficiency variance, let’s check your understanding of the cost variance. The debits and credits would be reversed for favorable materials quantity variances.

The direct materials quantity variance of Blue Sky Company, as calculated above, is favorable because the actual quantity of materials used is less than the standard quantity allowed. These thin margins are the reason auto
suppliers examine direct materials variances so carefully. Any
unexpected increase in steel prices will likely cause significant
unfavorable materials price variances, which will lead to lower
profits.

Clearly, this is unfavorable because the actual price was higher
than the expected (budgeted) price. In a manufacturing company, the purchasing and accounting departments usually set a standard price for materials meeting certain engineering specifications. When setting a standard price, they consider factors such as market conditions, vendors’ quoted prices, and the optimum size of a purchase order. A direct materials cost variance (sometimes called a materials price variance or MPV) occurs when a company pays a higher or lower price than the standard price set for materials. In this case, the actual price per unit of materials is \$9.00, the standard price per unit of materials is \$7.00, and the actual quantity purchased is 20 pounds.